Hermann Hand
(1875 - 1951)

Photo: Mason (1908)

  (click on images for a larger view)

Hermann Hand was born on August 17, 1875 in Vienna, Austria, the son of Ignatz Hand and Rosa Skitzer.1   According to Elson (1912) he studied Horn with Josef Schandel [sic, probably Schantl] and was a soloist with the Imperial Opera, Vienna. 2 He was also "principal horn player in the splendid orchestra conducted by Richard Strauss, when Capel-meister [sic] at Berlin."3 In the above photo he is playing a C.F. Schmidt horn. At the age of twenty-five he came to the United States arriving in New York in November, 1900.4 On November 24, 1902 he married Miss Johanna Becke:
And So They Were Married
Herman Hand and Miss Johanna Becke were married in an office in the Erie County Savings Bank building yesterday afternoon. Mr. Hand is well known in musical circles in Buffalo. He came to this country from Vienna several years ago and stopped for a time in New York. There he met Miss Becke who had recently come to America from Bremen. Miss Becke is and accomplished musician. They parted, but met in Buffalo at the Pan-American, where the former acquaintance was continued. Mr. Hand remained in Buffalo and Miss Becke returned to New York. She came here again last week and yesterday they were married by the Reverend Mr. Muller with Austin Clawson and Vincent D. Ryan as witnesses.5
The honeymoon was over, however, a year and a half later when Mr. Hand was arrested in Buffalo for non-support. He alleged before Judge Murphy that at the time of his marriage to his wife Johanna, a written agreement was signed by both parties whereby he was not to support his wife on account of the small pay he was receiving. At first Judge Murphy held that such agreement was against the public welfare and declared it void,  reserving his decision until June 1, 1904. On June 3, 1904, The Buffalo Courier reported the following:
Deserted Wife Has No Rights
Mrs. Hand Force a Marriage and Then Signed Away Her Rights
Herman Hand is not only a skilful French horn player but he is also a clever financier. Judge Murphy discharged him in Police Court yesterday in the proceedings for non-support brought against him by his wife. Johanna Hand. That is no testimonial to his musical ability nor to his financiering genius. The former is readily established, when it is known that he has been employed as the French horn player with Walter Damrosch's orchestra. The latter can be readily appreciated when the story of his matrimonial ventures is told. When he came to this country a few years ago he sent for his fiancee in Germany and promised to marry her upon her arrival in America. She came but he delayed the marriage ceremony. She instituted a breach of promise proceedings in the amount of $5,000. Herman then married the girl. The wedding occurred in November, 1902. But Herman was a financier. He induced his bride to sign the following agreement: 
"For and in consideration of $100 paid in settlement of this action and costs I, Johanna Hand, hereby release my husband, Herman Hand from any rights and demands I may have on him for support."
Hand was discharged. Mrs. Hand stated that she would begin an action for a separation and would ask for alimony.6
The earliest public performances found for Hermann Hand were with the Tonkunstler Society of New York during its 1904 to 1905 season.  On November 22, 1904 he performed the Brahms Trio, op. 40 with Maurice Kaufman, violin and Alexander Rihm, piano at Assembly Hall, New York. On January 31, 1905 the program included Mozart's Quintet, with Maurice Kaufman, violin, Ernst H. Bauer and August Schmidt, violas, and Leo Schulz, cello, and on March 21, 1905 he performed the Strauss Horn Concerto, op. 11, at the Imperial Hall in Brooklyn accompanied by Alexander Rihm, piano. In the fall of the same year he joined the faculty of the newly-formed instrumental department of the Institute of Musical Art directed by Frank Damrosch, brother of the New York Symphony Orchestra's conductor, Walter Damrosch. On December 31, he was listed among the featured soloists on the New York Symphony's concert at the New York Hippodrome, although the work he performed was not mentioned in the New York Times announcement.

In 1906 Walter Damrosch formed a "Wind Instrument Player's Club" after the model of the Longy Club in Boston. This group included George Barrère and John Roodenburg, flutes, Cesare Addimando and Marcel Tabuteau, oboes, Auguste Mésnard and W. Kirchner, bassoons, and Hermann Hand and J. Chernoff, horns, all members of the New York Symphony Orchestra. On December 11, 1906, members of this club performed the Beethoven Quintet for piano and winds, op. 16, on a concert with the Kneisel Quartet.  From this group George Barrère formed the New York Symphony Quintet comprising the four principals (first named) listed above plus clarinetist Léon H. Leroy. On October 28, 1907 a special concert of French Theatrical and Romantic Music was given by an orchestra of 64 professional players from Boston and New York conducted by M. Albert Debuchy of the Théatre de l'Opéra-Comique, Paris. Mr. Hand was principal horn assisted by Wm. C. Gebhardt, L. Lippoldt, and G. M. Holmes.  The concert was accompanied by a 160-page program by M. Debuchy, with a lengthy history of music in France, including biographies of major composers.

In the summer of 1908, Mr. Hand, who was still an Austrian citizen, traveled to Vienna apparently on family business. On his return voyage on September 22, he listed his "nearest relative or friend in country whence alien came" as "mother, Rosa Deutsch, Vienna", suggesting that his father was now deceased and his mother had remarried. He returned just in time to begin rehearsals with Walter Damrosch and the New York Symphony, on October 4. A week later the orchestra left for a tour of Pennsylvania, spending a week in Pittsburgh, and also visiting Cincinnati,  Detroit, Saginaw, and Rochester before returning on November 1 for the opening of the concert season in New York.  Gustav Mahler had been contracted to conduct the New York Symphony in three concerts including his Second Symphony ("Resurrection") on December 8, 1908.7 Later that same season Mr. Hand was hired by the New York Philharmonic as an extra horn for a pair of performances on its subscription series.8 

It appears that Mr. Hand left the New York Symphony for the 1909 - 1910 season.9 He is found next as solo horn with the John Philip Sousa Band. In 1909 he called Sousa to recommend one of his better students, Benjamin Hudish, for the band. Hudish played for Sousa over the phone and as a result of his "back door" audition was promised a position for the 1912 tour. He later became Sousa's principal horn. On Saturday, December 24, 1910 the band departed New York for a 352-day tour around world. 10  In a concert in Wales, the platform on which the Mr. Sousa and the trombone section were standing, collapsed sending them some seven feet to the auditorium floor. Mr. Hand and a couple of others heroically prevented an equipment trunk from falling and crushing them. In addition to being solo horn, Mr. Hand was also employed as an arranger and copyist, a career he would later follow in Hollywood. In particular he composed a violin solo for Miss Nicoline Zedeler to perform. In a shipboard minstrel show for the benefit of Sailor's Widows and Orphans Home, Mr. Hand performed as a female impersonator. Mr. Hand was repeatedly singled out for his brilliant performance of the famous horn call from Richard Wagner's opera Siegfried. The Bandigo Advertiser (Victoria, Australia, May 27, 1911) said it this way: Mr. Herman Hand, whose rendering of "Siegfried's Call" astonished Sydney connoisseurs by its executive perfection, is one of the best known horn players in Europe. Mr. Han, who is an Austrian, was at one time principal horn player in the splendid orchestra conducted by Richard Strauss, when Capelmeister [sic] at Berlin." Mixing a couple of international epic legends, the New Zealand Dominion (August 16, 1911) reported: "The spirited playing of a "Siegfried" fantasia brought back the Homeric grandeur of Wagner, at whose altar lovers of the great German master of instrumentation may worship gloriously the present week. The call at the opening was admirably played by Mr. Herman Hand, solo French horn of the band." By the time the band reached San Francisco in September, the Chronicle (September 1, 1911): On the program will be, by special request, "The Siegfried Fantasie," by Wagner, incidental to which Herman Hand will play the "Siegfried Call" on the French horn."  On November 1, 1911, Herman Hand and Julius Spindler (flute/piccolo) "pulled off a little comedy for the boys" after a concert at the Grand Opera House in Dallas, Texas, according to the diary kept by Albert A. Knecht. In a poem called "Around the World with Sousa,  A Memento of the Tour", Edmund A. Wall wrote:
Our solo horn is Herman Hand,
One of the finest in the land;
His lip is sure, makes no mistakes,
"The Siegfried Call," he never breaks.

Following the World Tour with the Sousa Band, The Evening World, (NewYork, July 23, 1912) vividly reported the following ongoing drama involving Mr. Hand and Miss Louise Nutter:
Lovely Mr. Hand Wants That She Quit Loving Him

Miss Mutter [sic], Says Bracelet Wearing Tooter,
Shouldn't Call Him So Often, Chess?

The troubles of a trombone [sic!!] player are not all wind. So testified Herman Hand, a dear little man, who pushes and pulls in most magnificent manner the big brasso in Sousa's band. When Mr. Hand is not playing the trombone[no!] he caresses his upturned mustachios with a hand on the wrist of which is a bracelet with just the cutest of gold timepieces. He is just too exquisite.
Mr. Hand was on hand in the Magistrate Court to-day to tell his troubles to Magistrate Breen. He had haled into Court Miss Louise [N]utter, a handsome young English woman of twenty-six years of age, now a maid to Mrs. Stebbens of No 4 East Forty-third street.  Once he and Miss [N]utter - well, that did not matter. It was of the present he would speak. Miss [N]utter, she would insist that she must see him, and it was his wish that she would stay away. He wanted that she would let him alone, that she would not call him on the telephone, that she would not annoy him with her visits. When he told her all this, he said, she threatened him with vitrol in the face. Now, he wanted that the Court would not let her. Also!
And then came the romance which had been the cause of it all. It had begun on a steamer bound from South Africa or Australia. When the vessel was out two days they met. He made the advances. It was very charming on the rest of the trip and the romance was continued on shore. Sousa's Band had a triumphant  march through the colonies and where the band went the pretty English girl  was ever in the audience but only the music of the trombone [no!!] had any charm for her. She followed the the band to this country. Then Mr. Hand said he broke the friendship.
And She Still Pursued Him, She Did, Says He.
But the lady would not be a party to the breaking of the friendship which evidently meant so much to her. She told him so and she still followed him. He called her as a witness. Mrs. Thompson, janitress of his apartment at No. 1271 Hoe Avenue, to testify how Miss [N]utter had annoyed him by calling at the house and calling up on the telephone. He called  Clarence Smith, his friend and fellow exquisite, who plays the flute in the band. Mr. Smith could tell all about the romance and how the lady had followed him from the Antipodes and Mr. Smith did.
Miss [N]utter caused a dramatic scene at the opening of the case. She is naturally dramatic, but right off the heel she screamed and cried that the musician had ruined her life. Then she fainted and had to be carried out of the court room. After a while she became calm (pronounced "cam") but non the less dramatic. She told her side of the romance of the sea.  She said she had been left very well off at the death of her parents, who were wealthy. She determined to travel and while going to the colonies from South Africa, Mr. Hand had become her ship companion and the friendship ripened into a warmer affection. She gave him some jewelry, she said. She gave him a bracelet (not the one he wore - oh, no) and gold watch and other trinkets. He declared his undying love for her. By the time she reached this country her funds had dwindled to a mere nothing and then he wanted nothing more to do with her. Was this right? Was it just? I ask you, Judge, was that right?
Trombone [ugh!] Player Flashed His Jewelled Wrist
The trombone [yech!] player flashed his jewelled wrist as he stroked his magnificent mustache and looked wonderingly at the Magistrate and appealingly at the lady. He appeared to think it extrodinary [sic],  very.  Miss [N]utter was represented by Attorney Thompson, formerly of the District-Attorney's office while the musician has for his legal aid Attorneys Levy and Rosenthal. From a conversation with the lawyers it was developed that the English girl was preparing to sue the much mustachioed musician for breach of promise and that she wanted $10,000 to annoint her lacerated feelings. Magistrate Breen cautioned her about annoying the trombone [...] player any more and released her upon her personal bond which mans [sic] that he told her to be good and that he would take her word for it. As she left the court room she swept a glance of disdain over the musician which caused him to let go of his mustache and compulsively grasp the watch on his bejewelled wrist
The case was reported across the country including as far away as Anaconda, Montana. The New York Herald included a photo of Miss Nutter (right) stating that she "thinks that a man who has jilted a woman as she says Hand jilted her should be punished for the sake of other women whom he may feel tempted to deceive in the same way, and as a warning to others of her sex." The article goes on extensively quoting Miss Nutter's views. The Kalamazoo Gazette quoted Mr. Hand as saying "Breach of promise? Bah! ... Everybody knows I'm married. How can I be asking any woman to be marrying me when I haven't got a divorce? I never asked her to marry me. We met on shipboard, and she told me all of her troubles and asked me to help her. I lent her money and paid her bill at a Melbourne hotel. Then she turned against me and has been abusing me to my fellow musicians." According to Miss Nutter, however, "He promised to marry me soon and settle down soon in Australia where he was acquainted. ... He was always talking about his troubles with his first wife, whom he said he had divorced, and told me he would make an ideal husband. Oh, he was very romantic."

Three years later on March 30, 1915, the drama continued in the New York Supreme Court where Miss Nutter had filed suit for breach of promise demanding $10,000. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle found the case "ludicrously funny" and reported that Miss Nutter "was married, but didn't know where her husband was." On April 2, the New York Press reported that the jury "failed to agree after five hours' deliberation" the day before. The Syracuse Daily Journal described Mr. Hand as a "dapper little man" who "gave his testimony in a highly dramatic manner and frequently had to be prevented by counsel or the justice from addressing long statements to the jury. ... One night, he testified, while they were on deck together, she sprang up and cried, 'Do you see the devil in that red light?' Then the witness said she cursed her mother and started to jump overboard. He held her back. On cross examination he admitted that on another occasion, when she told him she ought to jump to the bottom of a river, he said 'Go ahead. That's the best place for you.'" The case was continued to April 12. Nothing further has been found regarding this case; according to the New York Clerk of Courts some records from the period were lost in a fire.

Photo dated 4/2/15. (Library of Congress)
In the midst of his troubles with Miss Nutter, Mr. Hand continued his horn playing career in New York. He apparently remained with the Sousa Band for a time after the 1911 Tour.  According to the Springfield  Republican  (December 27, 1912): "The Pittsfield [Massachusetts] symphony orchestra, which is to give its first concert next Monday evening, is now composed of 41 musicians. ... Herman Hand, first French horn in Sousa's Band, now disbanded for the winter, is to be with the orchestra."  

In a concert given before a large audience at the Century Opera House on October 25, 1914 he was heard with Weyert Moor in the Serenade for Horn and Flute by Anton Emil Titl. Arias were given by Hardy Williamson, Thomas Chalmers, Albert Kaufman, Elisabeth Campbell, Helen Stanly, Orville Stanley and Augusta Lanska. Josef Pasternack conducted the orchestra.
Three days after his fortieth birthday, Mr. Hand married Maria Magdalena Schwartz (1883 - 1948) in Jersey City, New Jersey on August 20, 1915. 11  The couple had one child, Maria Rosa Hand, born May 19, 1920.

In 1916, Mr. Hand joined the newly opened Rialto Theatre's orchestra as solo horn and was featured in May in a horn solo performing Benjamin Godard's Berceuse de Jocelyn, on the occasion of the completion of the theatre's first month of operation. On July 9 he helped arrange a surprise birthday banquet for S.L. "Roxy" Rothapfel, Managing Director of the Rialto "temple of the motion picture and shrine of music and arts," for which he had composed a march, "Hello Sam." The piece was featured publicly in the musical portion of subsequent shows at the Rialto.

At the April 18, 1917 concert of the Tonkunstler Society held at the Waldorf Astoria he performed the Sextet, op. 6 by Ludwig Thuille with Edward Myer, flute, Philipp Kirchner, oboe, Frederick Smith, clarinet, Adolph Weiss, bassoon and Alexander Rihm, piano.

Passport photo ca. 1923
In 1918 he registered for the draft and listed his employer as Victor Baravalle.  In 1920 Mr. Hand was employed once again by S.L. Rothapfel, this time as solo horn and as an orchestrator at the Capitol Theatre. In June he made a special orchestral arrangement of "The Swan" by Camille Saint-Saens for ballerina Mlle. Gambarelli. 12
The February 26, 1921 issue of The Billboard announced that at the Capitol Theatre, New York, Balletmaster Alexander Oumansky will present the "Papillon" Ballet by Schumann, for which a special orchestration has been made for this presentation by Herman Hand of the Capitol Orchestra. Mme Gambrielli, Doris Niles and A. Oumansky will take the principal roles and be assisted by ten other members of the Ballet Corps. Earlier that same month he was part of A Great Musical Feat. "The value of a perfectly functioning musical organization was illustrated at the Capitol Theatre, Manhattan, last week, when an original overture was conceived, written, arranged, and rehearsed in one week, by the members of the Capitol Grand Orchestra, and was presented in commemoration of Washington's Birthday. ...  Short scores were written by Erno Rapee and William Axt. A few phrases at a time they were turned over to Herman Hand, who wrote the orchestral score." Also in 1921 he and Rapee and Axt arranged music for the New York revival of D.W. Griffith's, "Birth of a Nation." 13

Age 46 (ca. 1921)
Starting on September 25, 1921 Mr. Hand directed the Lexington Festival Orchestra for a two-week engagement, at the Lexington Theatre in Manhatten. The Irish photoplay "Knock-na-Gow" adapted from Charles J. Kickham's novel, was presented "to a delighted audience that applauded enthusiastically." He  furnished "a proper musical setting and also [presented] a separate program of unusual excellence." On November 7, the Lexington presented Hamlet by Asta Films, accompanied by  scenes from Shakespeare's play. "Incidental and very effective music was provided by Herman Hand who led an augmented orchestra, and the house was very well filled."
On March 24, 1922 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

 On February 26, 1923 Mr. Hand applied for a passport in anticipation of traveling with Paul Whiteman and his orchestra on their six-month tour of England. He and his family embarked with Whiteman aboard the S.S. President Harding on March 3 and returned on the S.S. Leviathan on August 7.14 Playing second horn in the orchestra was Morris Speinson (1895 - 1989), who previously had been a member of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra.

The above photo is from an advertisement for Buescher saxophones featuring Paul Whiteman and his orchestra. The players are identified in the original photo as follows: (left to right), seated: Mike Pingitore, Sam Lewis, Tommy Gott, George Unger, Henry Busse, Ferde Grofé, Hale Byers, Morris Speinson, Donald Clark, Herman Hand, Ross Gorman.  Standing: Harold McDonald, Jack Barsby, Paul Whiteman, Phil Ohman.

According to composer and arranger Ferde Grofé the Whiteman Orchestra would give informal concerts at Broadway's Palais Royal nightclub at 1:00 in the morning, that included jazz versions of classical music. Since these proved popular with the public, Whiteman decided to present a full concert of classical arrangements to be held at New York's Aeolian Hall on February 12, 1924. Herman Hand made a special arrangement of Wagner's music called "Wagnariana" and Pietro Floridia prepared selections from Puccini's operas, called "Pucciniana. 15  In a private tryout concert attended by friends and invited critics, however, it was decided  that arranging classical music was a bad idea. With the concert already booked only two weeks away, a young little-known, composer named George Gershwin was commissioned to write a new work which he called "Rhapsody in Blue." 

December 13, 1923 Mr. Hand assisted Maud Morgan, Harp in her concert at Aeolian Hall, along with Dr. W. C. Hall, organ, and Paul Kefer, cello.

On January 5, 1924 the Capitol Grand Orchestra gave a special musical program on WEAF radio, direct from the stage of the Capitol Theatre that included the first presentation of an arrangement by Mr. Hand, "The Skater's Waltz" op. 183 by Emil Waldteufel, in fox trot tempo. In February the Capitol Theatre presented "Scaramouche", as announced by the Long Island News and Owl
"Scaramouche" at Capitol has Musical Counterpart
When Rex Ingram's production of "Scaramouche" unfolds on its second week at the Capitol Theatre, it will be accompanied by the brilliant music score which represents the highest development of motion picture presentation. S.L. Rothfafel, whose guiding genius directed the work enlisted the assistance of the entire music staff of the theatre. Herman Hand, first horn of the orchestra and an arranger and composer of prominence, is responsible for the arrangement of the score for the orchestra.
The New York Sun reported that a new radio broadcasting orchestra of twenty men "recruited from among the finest players in the big Capitol Theatre Orchestra gave its first performance on Sunday evening, April  6, 1924. Herman Hand was the solo horn player, and the group included a young violinist named Eugen [sic] Ormandy.  The following month the broadcasting ensemble gave concerts of classical music in Suffern, NY,  sponsored by the Women's Club, and at Rutherford, NJ, sponsored by the Rotary Club.  At the same time the Capitol Theatre's main production included a new arrangement by Herman Hand called "Wagneriana." The Hastings On The Hudson Echo vividly described it as follows: "One of the most thrilling incidents of this long music season burst quite unannounced upon us the other evening when we sauntered in for the Capitol theatre's program. It was the overture Herman Hand, that gentleman of euphonious name and Eurasian temperament, laid aside his French horn long enough to arrange a stirring medley of Wagnarian themes, and the orchestra caught the fantasy to its bosom and made it glow." August saw the premiere performance of the prolific Mr. Hand's "La Bonbonière" arranged to accompany a "charming" ballet number by Frank Moulan and Mlle. Gambarelli.

In1925 Mr. Hand orchestrated Robert Schumann's "Papillons", op. 2, for a fourteen-minute ballet at the Capitol depicting the sad clown, Pierrot, at Carnival. He also was writing "classsical arrangements" for his colleague from the Paul Whiteman Orchestra, Ross Gorman and his "Earl Carroll Vanities Orchestra."  A copyright was issued on February 10, 1926 for "Memories; Reminiscences by Herman Hand", for orchestra, with conductor and piano,  published by Edward B. Marks Music Co., New York. 
By 1928 the family had moved to Beverly Hills, California where Mr. Hand found employment in the motion picture industry as a composer and arranger. One of his first assignments was "Night Watch", a silent film released on September 9, 1928 by First National Pictures. His next work was on "The Wolf Song" for Paramount Pictures, an early sound film for which the musical score, singing, and sound effects were recorded but the dialog was silent, released March 30, 1929.  In 1938 he was a founding member of the American Society of Music Arrangers and Composers (ASMAC).

It is not known if he continued to perform in his later years, however he did work as a composer/arranger/orchestrator right up to the time of his death on December 1, 1951 at the age seventy-six. By then he had contributed to over ninety film scores. (See also IMDB.com


Very special thanks to Mrs. Jean M. Heiman for providing additional photos and family information.


1. Family records give his father's name as Ignatz Hand, however he himself identified his father as Herman Hand on his passport application in 1923.

2. Elson undoubtedly means Josef Schantl (1842 - 1902), who taught horn at the Vienna conservatory. Schantl also had performed the "long call" from Siegfried in Vienna under Richard Wagner's direction, which later became a staple of Hand's in a transcription for Sousa's band. If it is correct that Mr. Hand was a member of the Vienna State Opera, he might have performed under the direction of Gustav Mahler, who was the Opera's director from 1897 to 1907. According to Louis Charles  Elson (1912) Hand was also solo horn of the Metropolitan Opera. The web site Stokowski.org dates his time as principal at the Met to "at least during 1906-1907, and perhaps in the two later seasons ." Mahler conducted his first performances at the Met in January, 1908 and in December he conducted his Second Symphony with the New York Symphony so they certainly crossed paths (again).

3. Bindigo Advertiser, May 27, 1911, Bindigo, Australia during the John Sousa Band "Around the World" tour.  That Mr. Hand performed under Richard Strauss in Berlin is also mentioned in a report in 1937. Strauss was appointed First Conductor (with Karl Muck) of the Berlin Royal Opera on November 1, 1898 for a ten-year contract.

4. Although it has not been established, Mr. Hand might have been recruited by Walter Damrosch to come to the U. S. specifically for  the New York Symphony Society (later the New York Symphony Orchestra) of which he became principal horn by at least 1905, or the Metropolitan Opera which Damrosch also conducted from 1884 to 1902. Damrosch and his performed at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York in 1901, as did numerous bands from around the country.

5 The Buffalo Express, November 25, 1902.  A couple of weeks later, under the the court heading "Items of Legal Record - Chattels" the new Mrs. Hand paid Mr. M.F. Tallmadge the sum of $25. Mr. Tallmadge was a district representative of the Buffalo Retailers Association organized the year before to protect merchants from "irresponsible persons and persons who abuse credit and do not pay their bills." [The Buffalo Express, December 8, 1902] According to the Buffalo city directory for 1903, Hermann Hand was living at 646 Virginia St.

6. Mrs. Johanna Hand retained his surname and remained in Buffalo as a teacher of music and German in the public schools. No record of a subsequent divorce has been found although in the 1930 U.S. census she is listed as "divorced" and also claimed to be a a U.S. citizen "through marriage."   In 1912 Mr. Hand claimed that he was a married man however he did not become a naturalized citizen until 1923. 

7. During his visit in the spring of 1908 to conduct the Metropolitan Opera, Mahler had been in contact with Walter Damrosch, while at the same time he was being wooed by Mrs. Mary Seney Shelton, a wealthy and politically powerful supporter of the New York Philharmonic, to be its guest conductor in the following season. The rivalry between the Symphony and the Philharmonic was very contentious, each wanting to take advantage Mahler's fame and prestige. There were powerful factions on both sides but the Symphony and its conductor were considered by many to be the inferior of the two. Eventually Mahler became director of the Philharmonic. Damrosch persuaded Mahler to conduct the New York Symphony in three concerts including one of his own works and a copy of his Second Symphony was left for Damrosch to rehearse over the summer.  Mahler's rehearsals and the concerts did not go well, however. Attendance among the undisciplined musicians at the rehearsals was poor, and several were dismissed by Mahler. The concerts were also poorly attended and received mixed reviews. Although Mr. Hand left the New York Symphony soon after, there is no indication that his departure was at all related to the Mahler visit.  

8. The Philharmonic program for March 5-6, 1909 was Beethoven's Symphony No. 3, "Eroica", and Wagner's Prelude to Lohengrin, "Good Friday Spell" from Parsifal, and Overture to Tannhauser, conducted by Wassily Safonoff. The section comprised the then current four members, Hermann Dutschke, Sr., Joseph Chernoff, Michael Laitner, and Michael Niebling, plus Mr. Hand and Robert Fritsche.

9. Herman Hand is not found in the 1910 U.S. census. In 1910 George Barrère formed a second ensemble under his own name called the Barrère Ensemble of Wind Instruments. It gave its first performance on on February 28, 1910 with Mr. Hand's successor, Josef Franzl, as first horn.

10.  In this case the "world" was limited primarily to the British Empire, ending in a transcontinental tour across the United States. Countries visited included (in order) England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, South Africa, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and Canada (by way of Hawaii). After landing in British Columbia, the band traveled through Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and New York, ending with a concert at the Hippodrome on December 10, 1911.  The total distance of the tour was 44,346 miles from New York to New York.

11. Mr. Hand lists the date for his marriage to Maria Magdelana Schwartz as August 20, 1915 on his application for a passport in 1923, however in the New York State Census taken as of June 1, 1915 his wife is shown listed as "Anna" Hand. Family records indicate that he also had had a son from a previous relationship. His daughter, Maria Rosa, recalled once having met her half brother.

12. "In 1920, while preparing to reopen the Capitol Theatre, Rothafel saw ballerina Maria Gambarelli, an immigrant from Northern Italy, during a trip intended to seek new talent. After dancing for a year at the Metropolitan Opera, Gambarelli danced with Anna Pavlova at the Hippodrome in New York before going on tour with a variety of performers including Theodore Kosloff and Ed Wynn (Melnick American 188). Gambarelli later appeared in a variety of reviews, similar to many other ballet dancers at the time, and along with another dancer, Doris Niles, became two of the theatre’s most popular attractions (Melnick American188). WriterRoss Melnick explained, “The assembled corps of musicians, conductors, dancers, and choreographers was a principal reason for the Capitol’s success in the latter half of 1920” (Melnick American 188). Dance was an important component that served as a culturally uplifting accompaniment to a movie feature. Gambarelli told The New York Times nearly seventy years later, “During my time, even if I danced in movie theatres, I made people, the everyday public,love the dance. We taught them about ballet” (qtd. in Melnick American 188). Rothafel officially took over the Capitol’s presentations on June 4, 1920, setting out to expand the partnership between movies, music, and the performing arts. Under Roxy’s direction, theatrical production and business flourished at the Capitol, despite the economic slump." [Hausmann, E. Laura, "Early Ballet in the United States: The Importance of Florence Rogge, Choreographer" (2014), Dissertations and Theses, 2014 - Present,  Paper 428, CUNY Graduate Center]

13. For a detailed description of the music composed for "The Birth of a Nation" see Seymore Stein's artcle from Film Culture.

14. "In 1923 Whiteman made a triumphant tour of England, where his band played for the revue Brighter London, and for small private parties given by Lord and Lady Mountbatten. On their return to America they were greeted with a well-orchestrated hero's welcome; Whiteman was crowned "King of Syncopatiion" at the Waldorf."  [Schiff, David, Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p.52]  "The Ministry of Labour [in England] allowed a tour by the American musician, Paul Whiteman, to take place after the intervention of the Prince of Wales. A condition was put in the place that an equal number of British musicians (cf the visiting American ones) be employed. This became known as “The Whiteman Clause” and was used by the Union to barter in the subsequent, uneven application of the law. However, in the light of the Aliens Order, work permits for the increasing number of American musicians wishing to visit the UK were difficult to get and subject to a number of restrictions. Work permits were limited to eight weeks in duration and where an American band or musicians were employed by a ballroom a British band (or equal number of British musicians) had to be employed." [The Musicians Union: A Social History] See also Paul Whiteman (28 March 1890 - 29 December 1967) by Tim Gracyk for a discussion of Whiteman's recordings during this period and the controversy surrounding the appellation of "King of Jazz."

15. "Wagneriana" was premiered later in the year by the Capitol Theatre Grande Orchestra (see below in the text that follows). It was also played as late as 1929 at the Shea Theater in Mr. Hand's former home town, Buffalo, New York. Herman Hand also arranged a collection of themes by Tchaikovsky called "Tchaikowskiana" which Whiteman recorded in 1928. It is not known if it was originally intended for the Aeolian Hall concert four years earlier, however.


Bierley, Paul Edmund, The Incredible Band of John Philip Sousa, University of Illinois, 2006

Elson, Louis C.,  University Musical Encyclopedia, vol. II, The University Society, Inc, 1912

La Grange, Henri-Louis de, Gustav Mahler Volume 4 A New Life Cut Short (1907 -1911), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008

Mason, Daniel Gregory, The Orchestral Instruments And What They Do. A Primer for Concert Goers, New York, The H.W. Gray co., sole agents for Novello & co., ltd., 1908


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